Opiods(Smack, Afeem, Cough Syrup, Injections)

Drug Addiction

 

OPIOIDS

HAFFIM, DOODA , POSTA , SMACK , BROWN SUGAR, CODEINE, SPASMOPROXYVIN (DEXTROPROXYPHENE)
INJECTIONS
INJ FORTWIN (PENTAZOCINE), NORPHINE INJECTION, MORPHINE INJECTIONS


Table 4: Doses and duration of action of various opioids

 


Compound                                   Dose (mg  )             Oral                        Duration of Action

Morphine                                        10                           60                                        4

Heroin                                             4                            30                                       3-4

Methadone                                     10                            20                                       6-24

Pethidine                                        100                          300                                        3

Codeine                                          30                            90                                         4

Dextropropoxyphene                      —                           200                                         8

Dihydrocodeine                              15                            45                                          4

Buprenorphine                                60                           180                                         3

Pentazocine                                        0.3                           0.8 (sublingual)                  7



Withdrawal
1.Yawning
2.Increased secretions from all opening of bodies nose, eyes, salivations, diarrhea and spontaneous erections
3.Pain in calf muscles


Treatment
Buprocare-n (buprenorphine and nalaxone ) 8 to 16 mg
Nalaxone for challenge test as it is dopamine antagonist short lasting only for few minute
Naltrexone for prophylaxis effective for three days but need to be given daily dosage 50mg daily for an year
 

Acute Opioid intoxication
A.   The general criteria for acute intoxication (F1x.0) are met.

B.   Dysfunctional behaviour as evidenced by at least one of the following:
(1) apathy and sedation;
(2) disinhibition;
(3) psychomotor retardation;
(4) impaired attention;
(5) impaired judgement;
(6) interference with personal functioning.

C. At least one of the following signs:
(1) drowsiness;
(2) slurred speech;
(3) pupillary constriction (except in anoxia from severe overdose when pupillary dilatation occurs)
(4) decreased level of consciousness (e.g. stupor, coma);
Comment : Acute Opioid intoxication when severe may be accompanied by respiratory depression (and hypoxia), hypotension and hypothermia.


Opioid withdrawal state
A.   The general criteria for withdrawal state (F1x.3) are met. (Note that an opioid withdrawal state may also be  induced by administration of an opioid antagonist after a brief period of opioid use.)

B.   Any three of the following:
(1)     craving for an opioid drug;
(2)     rhinorrhoea or sneezing;
(3)     lacrimation;
(4)     muscle aches or cramps;
(5)     abdominal cramps;
(6)     nausea or vomiting;
(7)     diarrhoea;
(8)     pupillary dilatation;
(9)     piloerection, or recurrent chills;
(10)    tachycardia or hypertension;
(11)    yawning;
(12)    restless sleep.